The trend toward miniaturisation in electronic systems brings an increased sensitivity to electrical transient phenomena. Transistors have shrunk and dimensions are now on the order of five molecules thick.
Most modern integrated circuits operate at very low voltages and, consequently, electrical transients of only a few volts can damage, disrupt or shorten the lifespan of these systems and their components.
One of the major causes of damage to and disruption of electrical and electronic equipment is lightning activity. Every lightning strike causes a number of indirect, secondary effects, which can affect all nearby conductors and semi-conductive materials.
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